Tr-PS High-Voltage Power Supply Power supplies, particularly high-voltage power supplies, are often the big stumbling block to a successful completion of a tube-based audio project.
The other half is getting the power transformer. Description: The FS is a dual primary and dual secondary, split bobbin design which operates with either a parallel input of V or a series input of V.
The output voltage will be either The split bobbin design eliminates the need for costly electrostatic shielding. Electrical Specifications 25C 1. Maximum Power: Primary: Series: V; Parallel: V 3. Secondary: Series: Construction: Three flange bobbin construction with primaries and secondaries wound side by side for low capacitive coupling. Each rectifier is in series with a ohm resistor, both of which are shunted by a high-voltage capacitor to reduce RFI creation.
If the external load draws 30mA and the 1k RC resistor is used, the output voltage would be either Vdc or Vdc, depending on the jumper option chosen.
The 5W series resistor1k, 1. But the more I thought about it, I realized that getting twice the voltage, Vdc, could readily be had by turning the power transformer around degrees, reversing the primary for the secondary, thereby doubling the AC voltage available to the rectifiers. Now, the rectifiers see Vac, rather than Vac, which against 1.
Where I live, my wall voltage is closer to Vac, so Vac is presented to the rectifiers, producing Vdc.
John Errington's tutorial on Power Supply Design
Actually it is quite a bit hotter than that, as the small transformer's poor regulation develops a higher unloaded AC voltage. Since the kit comes with either V or V reservoir capacitors, the extra voltage is not a problem.
And I realized that I could halve the Vdc voltage and almost double the output current by using a full-wave center-tapped rectifier configuration on the normal secondary, which uses only two rectifiers. Or, I could set up the jumpers for Vac use, but use my Vac wall voltage to power the primary, thereby halving the output voltage and getting the full Ma of output current.
But what I really liked about the concept was having a super-easy building block to quickly assemble a tube project. I could just throw a Tr-PS-2 and its brother Tr-PS-1, a regulated low-voltage heater power supply that I will cover in the next post into an enclosure and not worry about the power side of the project.
It includes all the parts, including the user guide, the transformer and four sets of standoffs and screws and O-rings. It is available in two power-supply voltage ratings: V or V. Here is an example: my recent posts have shown how OpAmps could be used within a hybrid power amplifier; and as I have covered OpAmps many times before, my expectation was that little interest would be generated by these little, insect-like, eight-pin devices.
I was wrong. Many readers took to their keyboard and wrote me, asking if this OpAmp or that OpAmp could be used.
In addition, these e-mails revealed a vitality and enthusiasm missing from other e-mails. So, what was different about my last posts? My guess is that, rather than showing OpAmps being used in some novel fashion, I had shown them being used in the plain, everyday, general audio configurations. This meant that for many readers the circuits actually made sense.
The more that I think about it the more certain I become that the humble OpAmp is probably the best known, best understood electronic device.
Sorry, but capacitors, resistors, inductors, transformers are not electronic devices, although widely used in electronics. Strictly speaking, as the dictionary informs us, electronic devices are. And out of all these devices, the little OpAmp is the easiest to understand.
Okay, perhaps it is a toss-up between the diode and the OpAmp; but in terms of audio use, the OpAmp is the clear winner. The secret behind this victory is that the OpAmp, although fantastically complicated inside, comes close to being just a function block, or tiny black box, whose internal workings can remain as obscure as that of your car's catalytic converter deep within its muffler.
Who cares how it works, as long as it does work. An "operational amplifier" is an idealized functionality, not a technology.
For example, operational amplifiers and, indeed, OpAmps have been made from vacuum tubes, as the following schematic illustrates.Our high voltage power supplies meet a wide range of high performance demands. Our component, high voltage DC-DC converters change the way equipment manufacturers implement high voltage within in their products.
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Our power supplies are designed with redundancy and protection for primary circuits and are immune to electrostatic discharge events and RF. The development of precision scientific instruments demands power supplies with proven long-term reliability. Miniature high voltage power supplies designed by XP Power High Voltage meet the most extreme performance criteria. We have experience designing power supplies for use in mission critical applications that must deliver in any clime and place.
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Options include an output centre tap to provide both positive and negative outputs from one low cost module. Precision regulated DC to high voltage DC modules that feature easy external control and design-in, providing a stable high voltage DC output over the specified input voltage and load range. We design high voltage products for a broad spectrum of applications including satellite communications systems, electrostatic chucks, mass spectrometry and precision scientific instruments. Investors Careers en de it fr cn jp ko.
Need help deciding on a product? The Mission. Your free high voltage DC-DC selector guide. High voltage DC-DC applications by market.Tube circuits, such as line-stage amplifiers, headphone amplifiers, phono stages, and power amplifiers run on low-current, high-voltage power supplies. This new power supply is quite similar to the old PS If you plan on building a tube-based power amplifier or robust line-stage amplifier, and if you desire tube rectification, this is the the power supply kit to get.
The PS holds one high-voltage regulator and two low-voltage regulators. The high-voltage regulator holds the same circuit as the PS-1 and the two low-voltage regulators are similar to the H-PS-1 circuit, but differ in that the rectifier circuit cannot be configured as a voltage doubler. Power supplies, particularly high-voltage power supplies, are often the big stumbling block to a successful completion of a tube-based audio project.
The other half is getting the power transformer. Well, with the new Tr-PS-2 power supply both problems are solved at once, as the Tr-PS-2 holds its own power transformer. Janus Shunt Regulator Kit. In a nutshell, the Janus shunt regulator is a tube-based regulator that uses both feedforward- and feedback-based shunt regulation to reject both the rectifier-induced power-supply noise and the signal-induced power-supply noise from its output.
The PCB is 4. Each voltage regulator includes its own raw power supply required for feeding each regulator its raw DC voltage. In other words, except for the power transformer, the PS-1 PCB holds all that is needed to make a superb regulated power supply for tube circuits.SMPS Tutorial (1): Introduction - Switched Mode Power Supplies and Power Conversion
PS-3 Tube Power Supply Kit Simple tube power supply kit holds a solid-state rectified, RC pi filtered, high-voltage power supply and a low-voltage regulated heater power supply, with each finding its own raw power supply, including the rectifiers and power-supply reservoir capacitors.
Simple tube power supply kit holds a simple high-voltage power supply, with an RC filter; and a low-voltage power supply and low-voltage regulator. Simple classic tube power supply with tube rectifier and RC filter and heater voltage reference. PS-6 PCB, parts, and user guide.
The new PS-7 power supply board is only 2 by 3 inches big. Yet it can pack a punch, as it use two two PS capacitors in an RC filter. The PS is a new GlassWare power supply kit for tube fanciers. The PS fills a gap: a power supply for those who need a high-voltage power supply with two sets of regulated low-voltage power supplies usually for powering heaters.
The PS is a new power-supply RC filter. In other words, it is an add-on for an existing power supply. It could, however, be used with a GlassWare Rectifier-1, which would create complete high-voltage power supply.
The input and last RC filter are bypassed by a high-quality 1. PS Bipolar Power Supply. The PS's PCB is small, being only 4in by 4in, but it packs quite a wallop due to the large-valued capacitors used. Two RC-based pi filters smooth the bipolar DC outputs. The heater power supply is regulated, using an LDO regulator, LD, and can accept either a full-wave-bridge or voltage doubler or full-wave center-tapped rectifier configuration.
Kit includes page user guide. The House-GND kit is a simple circuit that helps reduce hum in audio equipment that is attached to a dirty house-ground connection. The small capacitor allows high-frequency noise to find a path to the house ground. The ohm power resistor makes a DC connection between grounds, while still offering some isolation between grounds.
The kit is quite small, the PCB being only 1 by 1.Did you use this instructable in your classroom? Add a Teacher Note to share how you incorporated it into your lesson. This high voltage power supply has been designed to output a fixed voltage of around 50kV, it could easily be converted to an adjustable supply by connecting a variac in case of using transformers or by adding some extra circuitry to regulate the power going in.
I initially thought about a high frequency PWM to regulate the power going into the capacitors, but I abandoned the idea. I found that adjusting the frequency is enough to make the voltage vary by a significant amount, allowing some control over it, this happens because the flyback must operate at a certain frequency in order to maximize the output.
This shows the importance of having a big pile of electronic junk, specially old stuff with chunky electric and electronic components, it doesn't matters if you have to pick it from the dumpster, it can save you tons of money on the long run and by repurposing these devices you're being Eco-friendly. A good practice it to save the tin when desoldering and avoid throwing it into the trashcan and when you're done with the board or there are no more valuable components you can take it to a place where it can be recycled properly.
Caution has been taken in order to isolate the high voltage output from the user and the internal circuitry. Remember to connect both negative terminals of the power supplies together, otherwise it won't work. The only calculation we'll need to perform is to obtain the value of the capacitors in case you're using a transformer and not a switching PSU to power the flyback we use the formula provided by the picture.
In my case I used uF, this causes quite a lot of ripple, but it isn't really important since the flyback won't be picky about it, I'll maybe add uF or uF more just to see the effect on the output. I discourage wiring the driver to the same source than the flyback, the ripple created by the changing currents could alter the correct working of the driver, resulting into lower efficiency and smaller arcs.
Every power supply needs a case to hide the components from the user, and this is a high voltage power supply, so extra care must be taken. The obvious choices are wood and plastic or variants, although plastic is preferable. Metal is not a good option for a beginner, specially without further isolation and using proper rated connectors, cables Even though the use of plastic is encouraged, I chose wood because I couldn't find a plastic case big enough, this has allowed to further isolate the high voltage parts avoiding corona discharges and other potential dangers.
After applying my basic woodworking skills I came up with this, the steps are detailed in the pictures. Note : If you plan to paint the case, check the paint isn't conductive at high voltages when dry, oil based paint is recommended if it's too dense mix with a thinner e. Water based paint is obviously forbidden. Using wood is discouraged if it's going to be in a very humid environment, and extra care must be taken in order to keep the wood away from water.
It's a good advice to let the wood dry in an oven before applying paint or treating it. In this configuration they barely get warm even under full load. I was going to add an optocoupler to the circuit but I decided not to, Instead I just wired a button with a 1k resistor where the IR sensor should be placed.
You can edit the circuit and remove the transistor, leaving the button connected to pin 4 with a 10k resistor going from it to ground. I also attach a mains connector and a switch to the case and wire them, it is very important to use heatshrink tube or other kind of protection when making connections with the mains, you don't want exposed connections around.
I screwed the ground connection to the case just in case I want to wire something afterwards and so it doesn't moves. If you want to make an optocoupler to further improve the safety of the supply you can make one with an IR LED and sensor and a piece of heatshrink tube white is better since it reflects light better than blackwire the IR LED to a batery pack in series with a resistor and a button and you're good to go.
Just make sure this circuit isn't in close proximity to the other one or you'll defeat the purpose of the optocoupler, which is preventing you from getting shocked. Without an optocoupler current can travel through your body in case you touch or get near the high voltage output, reach the button and enter the circuit again.
WARNING: A pushbutton is extremely preferable over a switchin case of accident the button will spring back and shut the circuit down.
NEVER use a switch to turn on the high voltage output unless everything is always under special conditions that make it impossible for an accident to occur.The differences between the four types include constant voltage output, cost efficiency, size, weight, and ripple. Unregulated power supplies contain four basic components: a transformer, rectifier, filter capacitor, and a bleeder resistor. This type of power supply, because of its simplicity, is the least costly and most reliable for low power requirements.
The disadvantage is that the output voltage is not constant. It will vary with the input voltage and the load current, and the ripple is not suitable for electronic applications. The ripple can be reduced by changing the filter capacitor to an IC inductor-capacitor filter but the cost to make this change would make use of the regulated linear power supply a more economical choice.
A regulated linear power supply is identical to the unregulated linear power supply except that a 3-terminal regulator is used in place of the bleeder resistor. The regulated linear power supply solves all of the problems of the unregulated supply, but is not as efficient because the 3-terminal regulator will dissipate the excess power in the form of heat which must be accommodated in the design of the supply.
The output voltage has negligible ripple, very small load regulation, and high reliability, thus making it an ideal choice for use in low power electronic applications. A ferroresonant power supply is very similar to an unregulated power supply except for the characteristics of the ferroresonant transformer. The ferroresonant transformer will supply a constant output voltage over a wide variation of the transformer input voltage.
The problems with using a ferroresonant power supply include that it is very sensitive to slight changes in line frequency and would not be switchable from 50 Hz to 60 Hz, and that the transformers dissipate more heat than conventional transformers. These power supplies are heavier and will have more audible noise from the transformer resonance than regulated linear power supplies.
The switch mode power supply has a rectifier, filter capacitor, series transistor, regulator, transformer, but is more complicated than the other power supplies that we have discussed. The schematic below is a simple block diagram and does not represent all of the components in the power supply.
The AC voltage is rectified to an unregulated DC voltage, with the series transistor and the regulator. This DC is chopped to a constant high frequency voltage which enables the size of of the transformer to be dramatically reduced, and allows for a much smaller power supply. The disadvantages of this type of supply are that all of the transformers have to be custom-made and the complexity of the power supply does not lend itself to low production or economical low power applications.
From our previous description, a regulated linear power supply is the most economical design for lower power, low ripple, and low regulation which is suitable for electronic applications. In this section we will explain the four basic rectification circuits that are used:. A full-wave rectifier uses only one-half of the transformer winding at a time.
The transformer secondary rated current should be 1. The transformer secondary voltage should be approximately. The full-wave bridge rectification circuit is the most cost effective because it requires a lower VA rated transformer than a full-wave rectifier. In a full-wave bridge, the entire transformer secondary is used on each half cycle, unlike the full-wave center tapped which only uses one-half the secondary on each half cycle. A dual complementary rectifier is used to supply a positive and negative DC output of the same voltage.
In most cases, the negative current is significantly less than the positive current requirements so the AC voltage and current relationship to the DC voltage and current should be the same as the full-wave center tapped described earlier. The use of a regulated linear power supply is to provide a constant output voltage over a variety of loads and also a variation of the input voltage.
All of our calculations to determine the correct transformer will assume that the input voltage can vary from 95 to V and not change the output of our supply. We have summarized all of the calculations for three basic rectification circuits in the table below:. There are low loss regulators which have.Basic Switching Power Supply Design Tutorial Navigation This page is a bit longer than the other pages and may be somewhat difficult to navigate. Since it's designed as part of the Basic Car Audio Electronics site and you likely opened this page by clicking on item number in the directory, that link should still be there.
If you get in the middle of a long section and you want to quickly return to the top of the page, simply click the link in the directory for page If there is no directory to the right, please click the arrow below and scroll down in the directory to page It applies only to push-pull switching power supplies powered from a 12v DC source like those used in virtually all car audio amplifiers.
It's not an in-depth tutorial and there is much more to learn but this should help introduce you to the basics. Most of the other sites and subject matter seem to be written for those who already know the material. This page is for those who know basic electronics but know absolutely nothing about switching power supplies. Hopefully, the information you find here will help you understand the subject matter well enough to understand the more advanced material you'll find on other sites.
If you find that something is being discussed but some pre-requisite information seems to have been omitted, please email me. If you have questions, comments or suggestions regarding this material, feel free to email me.
If you're interested in building a switching power supply but are intimidated by the length of this page, don't be. Take it one section at a time. Give it time to sink in and a couple of days later, read another section. This means that they will not be visible on many of the internet capable cell phones and similar devices.
If you're interested in this page, it's best viewed from a laptop or desktop computer. You'll see this often when the value is printed on a component. Since the printing is often low quality on an uneven surface, it's easy to lose a tiny decimal point. The substitution of the K in place of the decimal point makes it unlikely that the value can be misread. The K means thousand. If you had a 2. For a three million, three hundred thousand ohm resistor the marking would likely read 3M3.
The same goes for the L, L, LThe post details how to design and build a good work bench power supply circuit right from the basic design to the reasonably sophisticated power supply having extended features. This is because no electronics can run without power, to be precise a low voltage DC power, and a power supply unit is a device which is specifically meant for fulfilling this purpose. If this equipment is so important, it becomes imperative for all in the field to learn all the nitty-gritties of this important member of the electronic family.
Let's begin and learn how to design a power supply circuit, a simplest one firstprobably for the noobs who would find this information extremely useful.
50,000V High Voltage Power Supply
A basic power supply circuit will fundamentally require three main components for providing the intended results. A transformer, a diode and a capacitor. The transformer is the device which has two sets of windings, one primary and the other one is the secondary. Mains v or v is fed to the primary winding which is transferred to the secondary winding to produce a lower induced voltage there. The low stepped down voltage available at the secondary of the transformer is used for the intended application in electronic circuits, however before this secondary voltage can be used, it needs to be first rectified, meaning the voltage needs to be made into a DC first.
For example if the transfornmer secondary is rated at 12 volts then the acquired 12 volts from the transformer secondary will be a 12 volt AC acros the relevant wires. Electronic circuit can never work with ACs and therefore this voltage should be transformed into a DC.
A diode is one device which effectively converts an AC to DC, there are three configurations through which basic power supply designs may be configured. The most basic and crude form of power supply design is the one which uses a single diode and a capacitor. The above compensation act done by the capacitors stored energy helps to maintain a clean and ripple free DC output which wouldn't be possible just by the diodes alone.
For a single diode power supply design, the transformer's secondary winding just needs to have a single winding with two ends. However the above configuration cannot be considered an efficient power supply design due to its crude half wave rectification and limited output conditioning capabilities. Using a couple of diodes for making a power supply requires a transformer having a center tapped secondary winding. The diagram shows how the diodes are connected to the transformer.
Though, the two diodes work in tandem and tackle both the halves of the AC signal and produce a full wave rectification, the employed method is not efficient, because at any instant only one half winding of the transformer is utilized. It's the best and universally accepted form of power supply configuration as far as the rectification process is concerned.